Our research center is organized in three cross-cutting research clusters: 1) Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation in Development (EMID); 2) Sustainability Governance Group (SGG); and 3) Knowledge and Global Development (KGD). Find information below on ongoing projects related to each cluster. We carry out critical, engaged and theoretically-driven research on the roles of business, government and civil society in promoting inclusive, just and sustainable development – with a focus on power dynamics, inequalities and marginalized actors in the global South.

CBS Sustainability  +  Centre for Business & Development Studies

The purpose of SGG is to nurture Sustainability Governance knowledge. This is accomplished principally by developing and supporting research, publication and dissemination focused on the governance of sustainability in a variety of global contexts. These activities may extend to sustainability education, fundraising, as well as outreach and engagement with policy and practice. Areas of expertise span a broad range of fields, yet SGG’s shared interests lie at the intersection of the economic with the social and/or environmental. Particular strengths include governance and sustainability as related to global value chains, corporate social responsibility (CSR), development, public and private regulation, human rights, power and justice, international business and the SDGs. Within these topics, research explores different approaches to governance; tensions and trade-offs; impacts, both intended and unintended; differing perspectives and viewpoints; and multi-level impacts (micro-meso-macro) of governance and their interactions.


Contact: Sarah Castaldi

Does a bidet seat need electricity? How long is the cord?

Yes, you will need to plug the bidet seat directly to a nearby grounded electrical outlet. The cord is approximately 3'6" long which comes to about 119 cm. The bidet toilet seat is compatible with any standard 120V outlet. Power for the EKO Jet Wave JWB-3600 is rated at 866W total.

Does a bidet seat need a hot water connection?

No. There is a water heater that heats the water supplied by the same water supply of your toilet tank, so there is no plumbing required. Necessary fitting will be provided. Please refer to our specification manual eko-technologies.ca/fit

How does the warranty work?

At Eko-bidet, we offer the highest quality bidet seats that will last for years to come. That's why all our products are backed by an outstanding warranty package. All our bidet seats have been rigorously tested for durability and reliability. In the unlikely event you have a problem with your bidet toilet seat, your first step is to contact us and we’ll troubleshoot the problem with you. If the problem can be fixed by sending you a spare part, like a new hose for example, we will do so. Or if we determine your remote control is not working properly, we’ll ship you a new remote. If the problem seems to be something mechanical inside your bidet seat, we’ll ask you to ship your bidet back to us. You will be responsible for one-way shipping fees, and once repaired, we will pay for shipping back to you. In effect, we split the cost of shipping. We offer 3 year limited warranty to all our Eko Jet Wave product line. If the product brakes and it was installed and used properly we will repair it for free.

Do I need to do any Plumbing work?

No. In most cases you don't need to do any plumbing work, exept connecting few hoses. All the necessary accessories will be provided.

Most common installation mistakes

1. Do not use plumbers thread sealing tape as it will damage the self-seal plastic connection and results in leakage 2. T-connector must be attached to the tank and not to the valve. 3. Make sure you have the right toilet seat fit size. For more info click here


The Knowledge and Global Development group (KGD) is a research cluster focused on critical approaches to the business of development and business activities in a developmental context. Our members study the myriad future(s) of development – social, political, environmental and economic - in the face of global challenges. Our work analyzes the interplay of knowledge and development in diverse contexts, across and between the Global South and Global North. The cluster meets monthly, and hosts research seminars that are open to all on a quarterly basis.

Contact: Maha Rafi Atal

C O M M O D I F Y I N G  C O M P A S S I O N ( C O C O )

Commodifying Compassion seeks to understand how ‘helping’ has become a marketable commodity and how this impacts humanitarianism symbolically and materially. An international team of researchers funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research will examine ethical consumption intended to benefit humanitarian causes from the perspectives of consumers, businesses, NGOs and recipients. Project website Contact: Lisa Ann Richey


The project will measure and explain the everyday humanitarian practices of communities engaged most directly with protracted crisis (refugees) and others experiencing acute crises (earthquake, floods). EveryHumanTZ’s Overall Objective is to understand how people interacting in everyday situations respond to crisis situations outside of the formal structures of humanitarian assistance. Find the webpage here. | Webpage here | Contact: Li sa Ann Richey

P R I V A T E- S E C T O R E N G A G E M E N T I N H U M A N I T A R I A N A C T I O N ( H U M A C )

HUMAC focuses on business-humanitarian collaboration in different crisis contexts to understand how humanitarian initiatives that involve private-sector firms can be organized in an ethical, effective, and sustainable manner. In doing so, HUMAC aims to generate urgently needed research-based knowledge and theoretical insights into the organizational dynamics, complications, and solutions of business-humanitarian collaboration. Website: https://www.cbshumac.org/ Contact: Verena Girschik


The Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation for Development (EMID) group studies firms’ role in sustainable development in the Global South. The EMID explores firms’ (local and foreign) practices and emerging strategies in seeking opportunities to overcome local and global challenges.

Contact: Jacobo Ramirez

M U L T I - S T A K E H O L D E R  I N I T I A T I V E S  I N  T H E  C O T T O N  V A L U E  C H A I N S  O F  S O U T H  A S I A

The overall objective of this research project is to analyze (i) how multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) for sustainable cotton production are formulated, implemented, and monitored in the cotton value chains of South Asia; and (ii) whether the processes through which MSIs are institutionalized in South Asia make any difference to the income, work, and environmental conditions of cotton farmers and on-farm workers in this region. These objectives will be achieved through the development of a theoretical framework that analyzes the processes through which sustainable cotton MSIs emerge, how they are institutionalized in different institutional contexts in the developing world, and how a variety of global forces (MSIs in global value chains (GVCs)) and local forces (national institutional contexts, local industrialization strategies, and the agency of workers/farmers) co-determine cotton producers’/on-farm workers’ income, work, and environmental conditions in developing countries. The framework is then applied to a comparative study of the evolution of the world’s largest sustainable cotton MSI – the Better Cotton Initiative - and its effects in South Asia (India and Pakistan).

Contact: Peter Lund-Thomsen

N E W  P A R T N E R S H I P S  F O R  S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y  ( N E P S U S )

The NEPSUS research and capacity building project assembles a multidisciplinary team to analyze sustainability partnerships in three key natural resource sectors in Tanzania: forestry, wildlife and coastal resources. In each of these sectors, we assess whether co-management with local communities and private and civil society actors, and putatively more participatory processes in the governance of renewable resources, result in more equitable and sustainable livelihoods and environmental outcomes. Project website Contact: Stefano Ponte


SUSTEIN will focus on localized translations of transnational sustainability standards in Kenya, United Arab Emirates and corporate headquarters in Europe to advance our understanding of the global value chain of certified tea. Our theoretical aim is to go beyond the idea of global value chain by way of deploying the novel concept of infrastructure. This will allow the project to better comprehend the recursive loops and contingent causes and effects in global value chains. Project website Contact: Martin Skyrdstrup

T H E  R E G U L A T I O N  O F  I N T E R N A T I O N A L  S U P P L Y  C H A I N S  ( R I S C )

RISC has three objectives: it will 1) identify attributes of effective governance of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) – and social sustainability more widely – in the Bangladesh (BD) ready-made garment (RMG) industry; 2) provide new academic and practical knowledge on the governance of social sustainability in international supply chains; and 3) contribute to local capacity-building and solutions for OHS and social sustainability in BD. Contact: Erin Leitheiser

R S P O  A N D  N U D G E

This research is conducted as a collaboration between the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and Copenhagen Business School. The aim is to study the potential for behavioral economic interventions along the sustainable palm oil value chain, more popularly known as “nudging.” This research will, first, identify points in the value chain where cognitive biases impede the uptake of the standard and, second, develop plans for the use of randomized controlled trials to test the effects of nudges on uptake. Contact: Kristjan Jespersen

T H E  H I D D E N  C O S T  O F  G L O B A L  S U P P L Y  C H A I N S

​The project aims to go beyond the traditionally investigated economic benefits of global supply chains, and explore the rather less well understood - but growing - environmental and social costs. It is based on a global, collaborative partnership between journalists and governance scholars, and holds potential for unique knowledge translation and mobilization. Hidden Costs has signed partnership agreements with The New York Times, PBS FRONTLINE, Toronto Star, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, NBC News, and Smithsonian Channel. These partners will provide additional funding and support for reporting projects, and will distribute the content, which will include documentaries, newspaper series and digital projects. The project will culminate in a traveling exhibit staged in two shipping containers – built in collaboration with the National Film Board of Canada – which will travel around North America to key hubs of global commerce. (Global Reporting Centre) Project website Contact: Stefano Ponte

P O W E R  A N D  I N E Q U A L I T Y  I N  G L O B A L  P R O D U C T I O N  S Y S T E M S  ( P I P S )

Global inequalities are growing and have become widely recognized as major challenges. A main driver of inequality has been the globalization of production which yielded new winners and losers within and across nations. Massive participation of global South actors in value chains and production networks has not led to a significant increase in value-added within these countries, despite expectations of the contrary. As inequality in the distribution of value added between actors in the global South and in the global North persists, new efforts have been directed in understanding how to reduce these inequalities. PIPS contributes new knowledge on about how value chain actors exercise power and what kinds and combinations of power they yield. Existing research has focused on identifying bargaining power asymmetries without examining how other forms of power may underpin, challenge or undermine bargaining power across value chains and in time. PIPS applies and further develops a new theory of power in global value chains to address these limitations.

How do different combinations of power shape the functioning of global value chains in time? When and in what circumstances do these combinations yield increasing or decreasing inequalities along global production systems? What policies and interventions can be learned in view of taming existing inequalities?

Empirically, PIPS analyzes two global value chains within the agro-food sector: Chile and South Africa. These two countries have similar production conditions but divergent outcomes. In both countries, international trade plays an important role, and the agro-food sector contributes to important diversification venues away from overdependence on extractive industries. Their climatic conditions (Central region in Chile, Western Cape region in South Africa) and portfolio of agricultural products is similar, making them competitors for a range of processed and fresh products. Yet, their trajectories in seeking to improve domestic value addition have been widely divergent, with Chile succeeding and South Africa failing.

PIPS examines power dynamics in these value chains over time, focusing on two out of their top three agro-food export industries: table grapes and wine. In the table grapes value chain, the two countries provide a relatively uniform counter-seasonal fresh product to retailers in the global North, with quality playing a relatively less important role in power relations along the value chain. In wine, the two countries provide a large quality portfolio of a processed product, with quality differentials playing a key role in power relations. This comparison allows for an examination of how different forms of power affect bargaining power over time, and thus how they affect inequality in the distribution of value added along the two chains.

PI: Stefano Ponte spo.msc@cbs.dk

Funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark

T H E  P A R A D O X E S  O F  C L I M A T E - S M A R T  C O F F E E  ( P A C S M A C )

PACSMAC will analyze the prospects for climate-smart coffee using a multidisciplinary approach, helping address sustainable development and climate change. Facing increasing temperatures, precipitation changes and new disease and pest threats, coffee farmers are testing new planting techniques and genetic varietals, activities that are attracting interest from other actors in the coffee value chain (VC). PACSMAC will study how Global Value Chain (GVC) structures affect opportunities for and benefits from climate adaptation and mitigation in the coffee sector in Ethiopia and Tanzania, addressing three questions: 1. How might climate change itself, alongside the mitigation and adaptation efforts intended to address it, affect the governance of coffee VCs originating in Ethiopia and Tanzania?
2. How do these changes affect the distribution of value along the chain, upgrading opportunities and farmer livelihoods?
3. How might these changes reshape the geography of coffee production and forest cover?

Contact: Kristjan Jespersen Funders: DANIDA FFU Partners: CBS, University of Dar es Salaam, Jimma University, ESADE University, Lafayette College

M A K I N G  O C E A N S  C O U N T  I N  T H E  N O R D I C  F I N A N C I A L  S Y S T E M

Finance is well positioned to support healthy oceans in the Nordics via its capital allocation. Making economic activities with negative impacts on ocean health more costly via a higher risk rating in credit assessments would send a clear signal to the market. However, first Nordic financial service institutions (FIs) need to gain an awareness of how their investment and credit decisions contribute to major Nordic ocean risks such as, but not limited to, eutrophication and fish stock depletion. The project will follow the money of major Nordic FIs calculating the ocean impacts per invested krone and translating it into financial value at risk and carbon at risk. Quantifying ocean risks into negative impacts on the business and carbon commitments will help to drive oceans into financial decision-making practices of Nordic FIs. The project will not stop at ocean risks but will facilitate an innovation process for the design of new ocean positive financial products and services. Contact: Kristjan Jespersen Partners: CBS, WWF Denmark, Green Digital Finance Alliance


This research and capacity building project will investigate how the garment/textile value chains connecting Europe/Bangladesh are being reconfigured in response to climate change. Our research will answer the following questions: How are the garment/textile value chains connecting Europe/Bangladesh being reconfigured in response to climate change, and what are the consequences for economic, social, and environmental upgrading in the garment/textile industries of Bangladesh? The main research objective is to create insights into the actors pushing for decarbonization and value chain resilience efforts in the garment/textile industries of Europe/Bangladesh; the drivers behind their engagement; the scope of their practices, experimentation, and collaboration; and the consequences for economic, social, and environmental upgrading in Bangladesh. Contact: Peter Lund-Thomsen Partners: Copenhagen Business School, AalborgUniversity (DK), Roskilde University (DK) BRAC University (Bangladesh), University of Dhaka (Bangladesh), Danish Ethical Trading Initiative, Danish Fashion and Textile

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